The small Cycladic island of Kythnos record an impressive historical presence, which over time covers a period of 100 centuries! More specifically, the first traces of man have been found in the depths of prehistory, some 10,000 years from now (late Mesolithic Age, 8th millennium BC), when the first daring navigators of the Aegean had established naval station on the coastal location of Maroulas, near modern port of the Baths.
The next certified human activity Kythnos probe shall be in the early Bronze Age (3rd millennium BC), when the rich island on copper ores attracted the interest of the coppersmiths of that time, who formed settlements and established mining kilns, which repeated in our days, the intensive exploitation of iron ore. The prehistoric name of Kythnos was Ofioussa, characterization that attributed the large number of snakes endemic to the dry land. The current name Kythnos is due to the colonization in the 14th century BC by Dryopes, offshoot of Mycenaean power, who came from Euboea led by Kythnos, mythical son of the god Apollo. When however that time, interest in Kythnos are mainly marine and rural, elements that characterize it and the next ancient Greek centuries to sail the Sea merchant vessels approaching the port (today Ovrioka-Straw or Rigokastro), where quickly populated ancient capital of the island developed, while in the rich pastures of the countryside grazed numerous herds of cattle and goats.Products of Kythnos, such as wine, honey and cheese especially, was prized in ancient markets.
The Peloponnesian War and conflicts of Alexander the Great’s successors led the Dorian island of Kythnos to decline, resulting in years of the Roman Empire is known primarily as a place of exile. After the victory of Christianity and the establishment of the Byzantine Empire, Kythnos belongs to the Aegean province, but the sea barbarian invasions destroy until then the capital and the population resort (7th century AD) in the impregnable castle Katakefalou (Castle Oria), the medieval capital of the island.
The capture of Constantinople by the Franks (1204) brought Kythnos, along with the other Cycladic islands, the share of the Venetians, who is said to have sent to Venice historical image of Our Lady of Nikopoiou, who had moved there from Constantinople and today is worshiped, as Madona Nicopia, the church of St. Mark. After the Venetians, Kythnos becomes the powerful family of Gkozadinon, the city of symbols, in the years which is occupied and destroyed by the Turkish fleet Haiderin Barbarossa (1537).
The modern history of Kythnos, following colonization by fugitives revolutions Cretans who settled in Syllaka village (today Dryopida) is marked and the dissident events of 1862, known as “Kythniaka” when rebels against Otto king sailed into port of Agia Irini in Loutra. There, however, were trapped by powerful governmental forces, the movement failed and the three protagonists (Leotsakos, Moraitinis and Skarvelis) executed on the spot.